Mobile robot path planning

A set of path planners for robots operating in planar environments with configuration \(\vec{q} \in \mathbb{R}^2\) or \(\vec{q} \in \SE{2}\). All inherit from PlannerBase.

Some planners are based on code from the PathPlanning category of PythonRobotics by Atsushi Sakai.

Inheritance diagram of roboticstoolbox.mobile.DistanceTransformPlanner, roboticstoolbox.mobile.DstarPlanner, roboticstoolbox.mobile.DubinsPlanner, roboticstoolbox.mobile.ReedsSheppPlanner, roboticstoolbox.mobile.QuinticPolyPlanner, roboticstoolbox.mobile.CurvaturePolyPlanner, roboticstoolbox.mobile.RRTPlanner

Planner

Plans in

Discrete/Continuous

Obstacle avoidance

Bug2

\(\mathbb{R}^2\)

discrete

yes

DistanceTransformPlanner

\(\mathbb{R}^2\)

discrete

yes

DstarPlanner

\(\mathbb{R}^2\)

discrete

yes

PRMPlanner

\(\mathbb{R}^2\)

continuous

yes

LatticePlanner

\(\SE{2}\)

discrete

yes

DubinsPlanner

\(\SE{2}\)

continuous

no

ReedsSheppPlanner

\(\SE{2}\)

continuous

no

CurvaturePolyPlanner

\(\SE{2}\)

continuous

no

QuinticPolyPlanner

\(\SE{2}\)

continuous

no

RRTPlanner

\(\SE{2}\)

continuous

yes

Discrete (Grid-based) planners

Distance transform planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.DistanceTransformPlanner(occgrid=None, metric='euclidean', **kwargs)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

Distance transform path planner

Parameters
  • occgrid (BinaryOccGrid or ndarray(h,w)) – occupancy grid

  • metric (str optional) – distane metric, one of: “euclidean” [default], “manhattan”

  • kwargs – common planner options, see PlannerBase

Feature

Capability

Plan

\(\mathbb{R}^2\), discrete

Obstacle avoidance

Yes, occupancy grid

Curvature

Discontinuous

Motion

Omnidirectional

Creates a planner that finds the path between two points in the 2D grid using omnidirectional motion and avoiding occupied cells. The path comprises a set of 4- or -way connected points in adjacent cells. Also known as the wavefront, grassfire or brushfire planning algorithm.

The map is described by a 2D occupancy occgrid whose elements are zero if traversable of nonzero if untraversable, ie. an obstacle.

The cells are assumed to be unit squares. Crossing the cell horizontally or vertically is a travel distance of 1, and for the Euclidean distance measure, the crossing the cell diagonally is a distance of \(\sqrt{2}\).

Example:

>>> from roboticstoolbox import DistanceTransformPlanner
>>> import numpy as np
>>> simplegrid = np.zeros((6, 6));
>>> simplegrid[2:5, 3:5] = 1
>>> dx = DistanceTransformPlanner(simplegrid, goal=(1, 1), distance="manhattan");
>>> dx.plan()
>>> path = dx.query(start=(5, 4))
>>> print(path.T)
[[5 5 5 4 3 2 1]
 [4 3 2 1 1 1 1]]

Warning

The distance planner is iterative and implemented in Python, will be slow for very large occupancy grids.

Author

Peter Corke

Seealso

plan() query() PlannerBase

property metric

Get the distance metric

Returns

Get the metric, either “euclidean” or “manhattan”

Return type

str

property distancemap

Get the distance map

Returns

distance map

Return type

ndarray(h,w)

The 2D array, the same size as the passed occupancy grid, has elements equal to nan if they contain an obstacle, otherwise the minimum obstacle-free distance to the goal using the particular distance metric.

plan(goal=None, animate=False, verbose=False)[source]

Plan path using distance transform

Parameters

goal (array_like(2), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\), defaults to previously set value

Compute the distance transform for all non-obstacle cells, which is the minimum obstacle-free distance to the goal using the particular distance metric.

Seealso

query()

next(position)[source]

Find next point on the path

Parameters

position (array_like(2)) – current robot position

Raises

RuntimeError – no plan has been computed

Returns

next robot position

Return type

ndarray(2)

Return the robot position that is one step closer to the goal. Called by query() to find a path from start to goal.

Seealso

plan() query()

plot_3d(path=None, ls=None)[source]

Plot path on 3D cost surface

Parameters
  • path (ndarray(N,2), optional) – robot path, defaults to None

  • ls (dict, optional) – dictionary of Matplotlib linestyle options, defaults to None

Returns

Matplotlib 3D axes

Return type

Axes

Creates a 3D plot showing distance from the goal as a cost surface. Overlays the path if given.

Warning

The visualization is poor because of Matplotlib’s poor hidden line/surface handling.

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

isoccupied(p)

Test if point is occupied (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – world coordinate (x, y)

Returns

occupancy status of corresponding grid cell

Return type

bool

The world coordinate is transformed and the status of the occupancy grid cell is returned. If the point lies outside the bounds of the occupancy grid return True (obstacle)

If there is no occupancy grid this function always returns False (free).

Seealso

occgrid() validate_endpoint() BinaryOccGrid.isoccupied()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

plot_bg(distance=None, cmap='gray', ax=None, inflated=True, colorbar=True, **unused)

Plot background (superclass)

Parameters
  • distance (ndarray(N,M), optional) – override distance field, defaults to None

  • cmap (str or Colormap, optional) – Specify a colormap for the distance field, defaults to ‘gray’

Displays the background which is either the occupancy grid or a distance field. The distance field encodes the distance of a point from the goal, small distance is dark, a large distance is bright.

If the planner has an occupancy grid then that will be displayed with:
  • free cells in white

  • occupied cells in red

  • inflated occupied cells in pink

If distance is provided, or the planner has a distancemap attribute the the distance field will be used as the background and obstacle cells (actual or inflated) will be shown in red. A colorbar is added.

query(start=None, goal=None, dtype=None, next=True, animate=False, movie=None)

Find a path from start to goal using planner (superclass)

Parameters
  • start (array_like(), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value specified to constructor

  • goal (array_like(), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value specified to constructor

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

  • next (bool, optional) – invoke next() method of class, defaults to True

  • animate (bool, optional) – show the vehicle path, defaults to False

Returns

path from start to goal, one point \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\) per row

Return type

ndarray(N,2) or ndarray(N,3)

Find a path from start to goal using a previously computed plan.

This is a generic method that works for any planner (\(\mathbb{R}^2\) or \(\SE{2}\)) that can incrementally determine the next point on the path. The method performs the following steps:

  • Validate start and goal

  • If animate, visualize the environment using plot()

  • Iterate on the class’s next() method until the goal is achieved, and if animate plot points.

Seealso

next() plan()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

D* planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.DstarPlanner(costmap=None, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

D* path planner

Parameters
  • costmap (OccGrid or ndarray(w,h)) – traversability costmap

  • kwargs – common planner options, see PlannerBase

Feature

Capability

Plan

\(\mathbb{R}^2\), discrete

Obstacle avoidance

Yes, occupancy grid

Curvature

Discontinuous

Motion

Omnidirectional

Creates a planner that finds the minimum-cost path between two points in the plane using omnidirectional motion. The path comprises a set of 8-way connected points in adjacent cells.

The map is described by a 2D costmap whose elements indicate the cost of traversing that cell. The cost of diagonal traverse is \(\sqrt{2}\) the value of the cell. An infinite cost indicates an untraversable cell or obstacle.

Example:

>>> from roboticstoolbox import DstarPlanner
>>> import numpy as np
>>> costmap = np.ones((6, 6));
>>> costmap[2:5, 3:5] = 10
>>> ds = DstarPlanner(costmap, goal=(1, 1));
>>> ds.plan()
>>> path, status = ds.query(start=(5, 4))
>>> print(path.T)
[[5 5 5 4 3 2 1]
 [4 3 2 1 1 1 1]]
>>> print(status)
_DstarStatus(cost=6.414213562373095)
Thanks

based on D* grid planning included from Python Robotics

Seealso

PlannerBase

plan(goal=None, animate=False, progress=True, summary=False)[source]

Plan D* path

Parameters
  • goal (array_like(2), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\), defaults to previously set value

  • animate (bool, optional) – animate the planning algorithm iterations, defaults to False

  • progress (bool, optional) – show progress bar, defaults to True

Compute the minimum-cost obstacle-free distance to the goal from all points in the grid.

property nexpand

Number of node expansions

Returns

number of expansions

Return type

int

This number will increase during initial planning, and also if replanning is invoked during the query().

query(start, sensor=None, animate=False, verbose=False)[source]

Find path with replanning

Parameters
  • start (array_like(2)) – start position \((x,y)\)

  • sensor (callable, optional) – sensor function, defaults to None

  • animate (bool, optional) – animate the motion of the robot, defaults to False

  • verbose (bool, optional) – display detailed diagnostic information about D* operations, defaults to False

Returns

path from start to goal, one point \((x, y)\) per row

Return type

ndarray(N,2)

If sensor is None then the plan determined by the plan phase is used unaltered.

If sensor is not None it must be callable, and is called at each step of the path with the current robot coordintes:

sensor((x, y))

and mimics the behaviour of a simple sensor onboard the robot which can dynamically change the costmap. The function return a list (0 or more) of 3-tuples (x, y, newcost) which are the coordinates of cells and their cost. If the cost has changed this will trigger D* incremental replanning. In this case the value returned by nexpand() will increase, according to the severity of the replanning.

Seealso

plan()

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

plot_bg(distance=None, cmap='gray', ax=None, inflated=True, colorbar=True, **unused)

Plot background (superclass)

Parameters
  • distance (ndarray(N,M), optional) – override distance field, defaults to None

  • cmap (str or Colormap, optional) – Specify a colormap for the distance field, defaults to ‘gray’

Displays the background which is either the occupancy grid or a distance field. The distance field encodes the distance of a point from the goal, small distance is dark, a large distance is bright.

If the planner has an occupancy grid then that will be displayed with:
  • free cells in white

  • occupied cells in red

  • inflated occupied cells in pink

If distance is provided, or the planner has a distancemap attribute the the distance field will be used as the background and obstacle cells (actual or inflated) will be shown in red. A colorbar is added.

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

PRM planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.PRMPlanner(occgrid=None, npoints=100, dist_thresh=None, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

Distance transform path planner

Parameters
  • occgrid (BinaryOccGrid or ndarray(h,w)) – occupancy grid

  • npoints (int, optional) – number of random points, defaults to 100

  • dist_thresh (float, optional) – distance threshold, a new point is only added to the roadmap if it is closer than this distance to an existing vertex, defaults to None

  • Planner – probabilistic roadmap path planner

  • kwargs – common planner options, see PlannerBase

Feature

Capability

Plan

Cartesian space

Obstacle avoidance

Yes, occupancy grid

Curvature

Discontinuous

Motion

Omnidirectional

Creates a planner that finds the path between two points in the plane using omnidirectional motion. The path comprises a set of way points.

Example:

AttributeError: 'UVertex' object has no attribute 'distance'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.7.13/x64/lib/python3.7/site-packages/roboticstoolbox/mobile/PRMPlanner.py", line 260, in query
    vstart, _ = self.graph.closest(self.start)
AttributeError: 'UGraph' object has no attribute 'closest'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'path' is not defined
Author

Peter Corke

Seealso

PlannerBase

property npoints

Number of points in the roadmap

Returns

Number of points

Return type

int

property dist_thresh

Distance threshold

Returns

distance threshold

Return type

float

Edges are created between points if the distance between them is less than this value.

property graph

Roadmap graph

Returns

roadmap as an undirected graph

Return type

pgraph.UGraph instance

plan(npoints=None, dist_thresh=None, animate=None)[source]

Plan PRM path

Parameters
  • npoints (int, optional) – number of random points, defaults to npoints given to constructor

  • dist_thresh (float, optional) – distance threshold, defaults to dist_thresh given to constructor

  • animate (bool, optional) – animate the planning algorithm iterations, defaults to False

Create a probablistic roadmap. This is a graph connecting points randomly selected from the free space of the occupancy grid. Edges are created between points if the distance between them is less than dist_thresh.

The roadmap is a pgraph UGraph UGraph UGraph

Seealso

query() graph()

query(start, goal, **kwargs)[source]

Find a path from start to goal using planner

Parameters
  • start (array_like(), optional) – start position \((x, y)\), defaults to previously set value

  • goal (array_like(), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\), defaults to previously set value

  • kwargs – options passed to PlannerBase.query()

Returns

path from start to goal, one point \((x, y)\) per row

Return type

ndarray(N,2)

The path is a sparse sequence of waypoints, with variable distance between them.

Warning

Waypoints 1 to N-2 are part of the roadmap, while waypoints 0 and N-1 are the start and goal respectively. The first and last motion segment is not guaranteed to be obstacle free.

plot(*args, vertex={}, edge={}, **kwargs)[source]

Plot PRM path

Parameters
  • vertex (dict, optional) – vertex style, defaults to {}

  • edge (dict, optional) – edge style, defaults to {}

Displays:

  • the planner background (obstacles)

  • the roadmap graph

  • the path

Seealso

UGraph.plot()

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

Lattice planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.LatticePlanner(costs=None, root=(0, 0, 0), **kwargs)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

Lattice planner

Parameters
  • costs (array_like(3), optional) – cost for straight, left-turn, right-turn, defaults to \((1, \pi/2, \pi/2)\)

  • root (array_like(3), optional) – configuration of root node, defaults to (0,0,0)

  • kwargs – arguments passed to PlannerBase constructor

Feature

Capability

Plan

\(\SE{2}\)

Obstacle avoidance

Yes, occupancy grid

Curvature

Discontinuous

Motion

Forwards only

The lattice planner incrementally builds a graph from the root vertex, at each iteration adding three edges to the graph:

code

direction

‘S’

straight ahead

‘L’

turn left

‘R’

turn right

If the configuration is already in the graph, the edge connects to that existing vertex. The vertex is named after the sequence of moves required to reach it from the root. This means, that any configuration, ie. \((x, y, \theta)\) can be reached by multiple paths and potentially have multiple names. The first name assigned to a vertex is permanent and is not overriden.

If an occupancy grid exists and the configuration is an obstacle, then the vertex is not added.

The path through the lattice is found using A* graph search, and costs changes the weighting for path costs at query time.

Example:

  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.7.13/x64/lib/python3.7/site-packages/roboticstoolbox/mobile/LatticePlanner.py", line 274, in query
    vs, ds = self.graph.closest(start)
AttributeError: 'LatticePlanner' object has no attribute 'graph'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'path' is not defined
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'status' is not defined
Seealso

plan() query() PlannerBase

plan(iterations=None, verbose=False, summary=False)[source]

Create a lattice plan

Parameters
  • iterations (int, optional) – number of iterations, defaults to None

  • verbose (bool, optional) – show frontier and added vertices/edges at each iteration, defaults to False

If an occupancy grid exists the if iterations is None the area of the grid will be completely filled.

Seealso

query()

query(start, goal)[source]

Find a path through the lattice

Parameters
  • start (array_like(3), optional) – start configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

  • goal (array_like(3), optional) – goal configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Returns

path and status

Return type

ndarray(N,3), namedtuple

The returned status value has elements:

Element

Description

cost

path cost

segments

a list containing the type of each path segment as a single letter code: either “L”, “R” or “S” for left turn, right turn or straight line respectively.

edges

successive edges of the graph LatticeEdge type

Seealso

plan()

plot(path=None, **kwargs)[source]

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

Continuous configuration-space planners

These planners do not support planning around obstacles, but allow for the start and goal configuration \((x, y, \theta)\) to be specified.

Dubins path planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.DubinsPlanner(curvature=1, stepsize=0.1, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

Dubins path planner

Parameters
  • curvature (float, optional) – maximum path curvature, defaults to 1.0

  • stepsize (float, optional) – spacing between points on the path, defaults to 0.1

Returns

Dubins path planner

Return type

DubinsPlanner instance

Feature

Capability

Plan

\(\SE{2}\)

Obstacle avoidance

No

Curvature

Discontinuous

Motion

Forwards only

Creates a planner that finds the path between two configurations in the plane using forward motion only. The path comprises upto 3 segments that are straight lines, or arcs with curvature of \(\pm\) curvature.

Example:

>>> from roboticstoolbox import DubinsPlanner
>>> from math import pi
>>> dubins = DubinsPlanner(curvature=1.0)
>>> path, status = dubins.query(start=(0, 0, pi/2), goal=(1, 0, pi/2))
>>> print(path[:5,:])
[[ 0.      0.      1.5708]
 [-0.005   0.0998  1.6708]
 [-0.0199  0.1987  1.7708]
 [-0.0447  0.2955  1.8708]
 [-0.0789  0.3894  1.9708]]
>>> print(status)
DubinsStatus(segments=['L', 'S', 'L'], length=7.283185307179586, seglengths=[4.71238898038469, 1.0, 1.5707963267948966])
Reference

On Curves of Minimal Length with a Constraint on Average Curvature, and with Prescribed Initial and Terminal Positions and Tangents, Dubins, L.E. (July 1957), American Journal of Mathematics. 79(3): 497–516.

Thanks

based on Dubins path planning from Python Robotics

Seealso

ReedsSheppPlanner PlannerBase

query(start, goal, **kwargs)[source]

Find a path between two configurations

Parameters
  • start (array_like(3), optional) – start configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

  • goal (array_like(3), optional) – goal configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Returns

path and status

Return type

ndarray(N,3), namedtuple

The path comprises points equally spaced at a distance of stepsize.

The returned status value has elements:

Element

Description

segments

a list containing the type of each path segment as a single letter code: either “L”, “R” or “S” for left turn, right turn or straight line respectively.

length

total path length

lengths

the length of each path segment. The sign of the length indicates the direction of travel.

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

plan()

Plan path (superclass)

Parameters
  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

The implementation depends on the particular planner. Some may have no planning phase. The plan may also depend on just the start or goal.

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

Reeds-Shepp path planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.ReedsSheppPlanner(curvature=1, stepsize=0.1, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

Reeds-Shepp path planner

Parameters
  • curvature (float, optional) – maximum path curvature, defaults to 1.0

  • stepsize (float, optional) – spacing between points on the path, defaults to 0.1

  • Planner (ReedsSheppPlanner instance) – Reeds-Shepp path planner

Feature

Capability

Plan

\(\SE{2}\)

Obstacle avoidance

No

Curvature

Discontinuous

Motion

Bidirectional

Creates a planner that finds the path between two configurations in the plane using forward and backward motion. The path comprises upto 3 segments that are straight lines, or arcs with curvature of \(\pm\) curvature.

Example:

>>> from roboticstoolbox import ReedsSheppPlanner
>>> from math import pi
>>> reedshepp = ReedsSheppPlanner(curvature=1.0)
>>> path, status = reedshepp.query(start=(0, 0, pi/2), goal=(1, 0, pi/2))
>>> print(path[:5,:])
[[0.     0.     1.5708]
 [0.005  0.0998 1.4708]
 [0.0199 0.1987 1.3708]
 [0.0447 0.2955 1.2708]
 [0.0789 0.3894 1.1708]]
>>> print(status)
ReedsSheppStatus(segments=['R', 'L', 'R'], length=6.283185307179586, seglengths=[4.459708725242611, -0.5053605102841573, 1.3181160716528177], direction=[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1])
Reference

Optimal paths for a car that goes both forwards and backwards, Reeds, J.A. and L.A. Shepp, Pacific J. Math., 145 (1990), pp. 367–393.

Thanks

based on Reeds-Shepp path planning from Python Robotics

Seealso

DubinsPlanner PlannerBase

query(start, goal, **kwargs)[source]

Find a path between two configurations

Parameters
  • start (array_like(3), optional) – start configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

  • goal (array_like(3), optional) – goal configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Returns

path and status

Return type

ndarray(N,3), namedtuple

The path comprises points equally spaced at a distance of stepsize.

The returned status value has elements:

Element

Description

segments

a list containing the type of each path segment as a single letter code: either “L”, “R” or “S” for left turn, right turn or straight line respectively.

length

total path length

lengths

the length of each path segment. The sign of the length indicates the direction of travel.

direction

the direction of motion at each point on the path

Note

The direction of turning is reversed when travelling backwards.

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

plan()

Plan path (superclass)

Parameters
  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

The implementation depends on the particular planner. Some may have no planning phase. The plan may also depend on just the start or goal.

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

Curvature-polynomial planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.CurvaturePolyPlanner(curvature=None)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

query(start, goal)[source]

Find a path betwee two configurations

Parameters
  • start (array_like(3), optional) – start configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

  • goal (array_like(3), optional) – goal configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Returns

path and status

Return type

ndarray(N,3), namedtuple

The path comprises points equally spaced at a distance of stepsize.

The returned status value has elements:

Element

Description

length

total path length

maxcurvature

maximum curvature on path

poly

curvature polynomial coefficients

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

plan()

Plan path (superclass)

Parameters
  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

The implementation depends on the particular planner. Some may have no planning phase. The plan may also depend on just the start or goal.

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

Quintic-polynomial planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.QuinticPolyPlanner(dt=0.1, start_vel=0, start_acc=0, goal_vel=0, goal_acc=0, max_acc=1, max_jerk=0.5, min_t=5, max_t=100)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

Quintic polynomial path planner

Parameters
  • dt (float, optional) – time step, defaults to 0.1

  • start_vel (float, optional) – initial velocity, defaults to 0

  • start_acc (float, optional) – initial acceleration, defaults to 0

  • goal_vel (float, optional) – goal velocity, defaults to 0

  • goal_acc (float, optional) – goal acceleration, defaults to 0

  • max_acc (int, optional) – [description], defaults to 1

  • max_jerk (float, optional) – maximum jerk, defaults to 0.5

  • min_t (float, optional) – minimum path time, defaults to 5

  • max_t (float, optional) – maximum path time, defaults to 100

Returns

Quintic polynomial path planner

Return type

QuinticPolyPlanner instance

Feature

Capability

Plan

\(\SE{2}\)

Obstacle avoidance

No

Curvature

Continuous

Motion

Forwards only

Creates a planner that finds the path between two configurations in the plane using forward motion only. The path is a continuous quintic polynomial for x and y

\[\begin{split}x(t) &= a_0 + a_1 t + a_2 t^2 + a_3 t^3 + a_4 t^4 + a_5 t^5 \\ y(t) &= b_0 + b_1 t + b_2 t^2 + b_3 t^3 + b_4 t^4 + b_5 t^5\end{split}\]
Reference

“Local Path Planning And Motion Control For AGV In Positioning”, Takahashi, T. Hongo, Y. Ninomiya and G. Sugimoto; Proceedings. IEEE/RSJ International Workshop on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS ‘89) doi: 10.1109/IROS.1989.637936

Note

The path time is searched in the interval [min_t, max_t] in steps of min_t.

Example:

>>> from roboticstoolbox import QuinticPolyPlanner
>>> import numpy as np
>>> start = (10, 10, np.deg2rad(10.0))
>>> goal = (30, -10, np.deg2rad(20.0))
>>> quintic = QuinticPolyPlanner(start_vel=1)
>>> path, status = quintic.query(start, goal)
find path!!
>>> print(path[:5,:])
[[10.     10.      0.1745]
 [10.0985 10.0173  0.1724]
 [10.1971 10.0342  0.1662]
 [10.2959 10.0503  0.156 ]
 [10.3949 10.0652  0.142 ]]
Thanks

based on quintic polynomial planning from Python Robotics

Seealso

Planner

query(start, goal)[source]

Find a quintic polynomial path

Parameters
  • start (array_like(3), optional) – start configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

  • goal (array_like(3), optional) – goal configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Returns

path and status

Return type

ndarray(N,3), namedtuple

The returned status value has elements:

Element

Description

t

time to execute the path

vel

velocity profile along the path

accel

acceleration profile along the path

jerk

jerk profile along the path

Seealso

Planner.query()

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

plan()

Plan path (superclass)

Parameters
  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

The implementation depends on the particular planner. Some may have no planning phase. The plan may also depend on just the start or goal.

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

RRT planner

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.RRTPlanner(map, vehicle, curvature=1.0, stepsize=0.2, showsamples=False, npoints=50, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: PlannerBase

Rapidly exploring tree planner

Parameters
  • map (PolygonMap) – occupancy grid

  • vehicle (VehicleBase subclass) – vehicle kinematic model

  • curvature (float, optional) – maximum path curvature, defaults to 1.0

  • stepsize (float, optional) – spacing between points on the path, defaults to 0.2

  • showsamples (bool, optional) – shows vehicle polygons for all random samples, defaults to False

  • npoints (int, optional) – number of vertices in random tree, defaults to 50

Feature

Capability

Plan

\(\SE{2}\)

Obstacle avoidance

Yes, polygons

Curvature

Discontinuous

Motion

Bidirectional

Creates a planner that finds the obstacle-free path between two configurations in the plane using forward and backward motion. The path comprises multiple Dubins curves comprising straight lines, or arcs with curvature of \(\pm\) curvature. Motion along the segments may be in the forward or backward direction.

Polygons are used for obstacle avoidance:

  • the environment is defined by a set of polygons represented by a PolygonMap

  • the vehicle is defined by a single polygon specified by the polygon argument to its constructor

Example:

from roboticstoolbox import RRTPlanner
from spatialmath import Polygon2
from math import pi

# create polygonal obstacles
map = PolygonMap(workspace=[0, 10])
map.add([(5, 50), (5, 6), (6, 6), (6, 50)]) 
map.add([(5, 4), (5, -50), (6, -50), (6, 4)])

# create outline polygon for vehicle
l, w = 3, 1.5
vpolygon = Polygon2([(-l/2, w/2), (-l/2, -w/2), (l/2, -w/2), (l/2, w/2)])

# create vehicle model
vehicle = Bicycle(steer_max=1, L=2, polygon=vpolygon)

# create planner
rrt = RRTPlanner(map=map, vehicle=vehicle, npoints=50, seed=0)
# start and goal configuration
qs = (2, 8, -pi/2)
qg = (8, 2, -pi/2)

# plan path
rrt.plan(goal=qg)
path, status = rrt.query(start=qs)
print(path[:5,:])
print(status)
Seealso

DubinsPlanner Vehicle PlannerBase

plan(goal, animate=True, search_until_npoints=True)[source]

Plan paths to goal using RRT

Parameters

goal (array_like(3), optional) – goal pose \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to previously set value

Compute a rapidly exploring random tree with its root at the goal. The tree will have npoints vertices spread uniformly randomly over the workspace which is an attribute of the map.

For every new point added, a Dubins path is computed to the nearest vertex already in the graph. Each configuration on that path, with spacing of stepsize, is tested for obstacle intersection.

Seealso

query()

query(start)[source]

Find a path from start configuration

Parameters

start (array_like(3), optional) – start configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Returns

path and status

Return type

ndarray(N,3), namedtuple

The path comprises points equally spaced at a distance of stepsize.

The returned status value has elements:

Element

Description

length | total path length

initial_d | distance from start to first vertex in graph

vertices

sequence of vertices in the graph

qrandom()[source]

Random configuration

Returns

random configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Return type

ndarray(3)

Returns a random configuration where position \((x, y)\) lies within the bounds of the map associated with this planner.

Seealso

qrandom_free()

qrandom_free()[source]

Random obstacle free configuration

Returns

random configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Return type

ndarray(3)

Returns a random obstacle free configuration where position \((x, y)\) lies within the bounds of the map associated with this planner. Iterates on qrandom()

Seealso

qrandom() iscollision()

iscollision(q)[source]

Test if configuration is collision

Parameters

q (array_like(3)) – vehicle configuration \((x, y, \theta)\)

Returns

collision status

Return type

bool

Transforms the vehicle polygon and tests for intersection against the polygonal obstacle map.

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

Map classes

Occupancy grid classes

Binary Occupancy grid

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.BinaryOccupancyGrid(grid=None, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: BaseOccupancyGrid

__init__(grid=None, **kwargs)[source]

Create a binary occupancy grid instance

Parameters
  • grid (ndarray(N,M)) – occupancy grid as a NumPy array

  • size (float, optional) – cell size, defaults to 1

  • origin (array_like(2), optional) – world coordinates of the grid element [0,0], defaults to (0, 0)

  • kwargs – options passed to BaseMap

The array is kept internally as a bool array. Cells are set to True (occupied) corresponding to input values > 0.

This object supports a user-defined coordinate system and grid size. World coordinates are converted to grid coordinates to lookup the occupancy status.

Example:

>>> from roboticstoolbox import BinaryOccupancyGrid
>>> import numpy as np
>>> og = BinaryOccupancyGrid(np.zeros((5,5)))
>>> print(og)
BinaryOccupancyGrid: 5 x 5, cell size=1, x = [0.0, 4.0], y = [0.0, 4.0], 0.0% occupied
>>> og = BinaryOccupancyGrid(workspace=[-5,5], cellsize=0.1, value=0)
>>> print(og)
BinaryOccupancyGrid: 101 x 101, cell size=0.1, x = [-5.0, 5.0], y = [-5.0, 5.0], 0.0% occupied
Seealso

OccupancyGrid

isoccupied(p)[source]

Test if coordinate is occupied

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – world coordinate (x, y)

Returns

occupancy status of corresponding grid cell

Return type

bool

The grid cell size and offset are used to convert p to an occupancy grid coordinate. The grid coordinate is rounded and cast to integer value. If the coordinate is outside the bounds of the occupancy grid it is considered to be occupied.

Seealso

w2g()

inflate(radius)[source]

Inflate obstales

Parameters

radius (float) – radius of circular structuring element in world units

A circular structuring element is created and used to dilate the stored occupancy grid.

Successive calls to inflate will compound the inflation.

Seealso

scipy.ndimage.binary_dilation()

copy()

Copy an occupancy grid (superclass)

Returns

copy of the ocupancy grid

Return type

OccGrid

g2w(p)

Convert grid coordinate to world coordinate (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – grid coordinate (column, row)

Returns

world coordinate (x, y)

Return type

ndarray(2)

The grid cell size and offset are used to convert occupancy grid coordinate p to a world coordinate.

property grid

Occupancy grid as a NumPy array (superclass)

Returns

binary occupancy grid

Return type

ndarray(N,M) of bool

If inflate() has been called, this will return the inflated occupancy grid.

line_w(p1, p2)

Get index of cells along a line segment (superclass)

Parameters
  • p1 (array_like(2)) – start

  • p2 (array_like(2)) – end

Returns

index into grid

Return type

ndarray(N)

Get the indices of cells along a line segment defined by the end points given in world coordinates.

The returned indices can be applied to a raveled view of the grid.

Seealso

ravel() w2g()

property maxdim

Maximum dimension of grid in world coordinates (superclass)

Returns

maximum side length of the occupancy grid

Return type

float

property name

Occupancy grid name (superclass)

Returns

name of the occupancy grid

Return type

str

plot(map=None, ax=None, block=False, **kwargs)

Plot the occupancy grid (superclass)

Parameters
  • map (ndarray(N,M), optional) – array which is plotted instead of the grid, must be same size as the occupancy grid,defaults to None

  • ax (Axes2D, optional) – matplotlib axes to plot into, defaults to None

  • block (bool, optional) – block until plot is dismissed, defaults to False

  • kwargs – arguments passed to imshow

The grid is plotted as an image but with axes in world coordinates.

The grid is a NumPy boolean array which has values 0 (false=unoccupied) and 1 (true=occupied). Passing a cmap option to imshow can be used to control the displayed color of free space and obstacles.

property ravel

Ravel the grid (superclass)

Returns

1D view of the occupancy grid

Return type

ndarray(N)

set(region, value)

Set region of map (superclass)

Parameters
  • region (array_like(4)) – The region [xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax]

  • value (int, bool, float) – value to set cells to

property shape

Shape of the occupancy grid array (superclass)

Returns

shape of the occupancy grid array

Return type

2-tuple

This is the shape of the NumPy array that holds the occupancy grid.

w2g(p)

Convert world coordinate to grid coordinate (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – world coordinate (x, y)

Returns

grid coordinate (column, row)

Return type

ndarray(2)

The grid cell size and offset are used to convert p to an occupancy grid coordinate. The grid coordinate is rounded and cast to integer value. No check is made on the validity of the coordinate.

property workspace

Bounds of the occupancy grid in world coordinates (superclass)

Returns

workspace bounds [xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax]

Return type

ndarray(4)

Returns the bounds of the occupancy grid in world coordinates.

property xmax

Maximum x-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

maximum world x-coordinate

Return type

float

property xmin

Minimum x-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

minimum world x-coordinate

Return type

float

property ymax

Maximum y-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

maximum world y-coordinate

Return type

float

property ymin

Minimum y-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

minimum world y-coordinate

Return type

float

Occupancy grid

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.OccupancyGrid(grid=None, origin=(0, 0), value=0, cellsize=1, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: BaseOccupancyGrid

General occupancy grid

The elements of the array are floats and can represent occupancy probability or traversal cost.

Example:

>>> from roboticstoolbox import OccupancyGrid
>>> import numpy as np
>>> og = OccupancyGrid(np.zeros((5,5)))
>>> print(og)
OccupancyGrid: 5 x 5, cell size=1, x = [0.0, 4.0], y = [0.0, 4.0], dtype float64, min 0.0, max 0.0, mean 0.0
>>> og = OccupancyGrid(workspace=[-5,5], cellsize=0.1, value=0.5)
>>> print(og)
OccupancyGrid: 101 x 101, cell size=0.1, x = [-5.0, 5.0], y = [-5.0, 5.0], dtype float64, min 0.5, max 0.5, mean 0.5
Seealso

BinaryOccupancyGrid

__init__(grid=None, origin=(0, 0), value=0, cellsize=1, **kwargs)

Occupancy grid (superclass)

Parameters
  • grid (ndarray(N,M)) – occupancy grid as a NumPy array

  • value (any, optional) – initial value of cells

  • origin (array_like(2), optional) – world coordinates of the grid element [0,0], defaults to (0, 0)

  • cellsize (float, optional) – cell size, defaults to 1

  • kwargs – options passed to BaseMap

This object supports a user-defined coordinate system and grid size. World coordinates are converted to grid coordinates to lookup the occupancy status.

The grid can be initialized by:

  • a 2D NumPy array

  • specifying workspace and value arguments

copy()

Copy an occupancy grid (superclass)

Returns

copy of the ocupancy grid

Return type

OccGrid

g2w(p)

Convert grid coordinate to world coordinate (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – grid coordinate (column, row)

Returns

world coordinate (x, y)

Return type

ndarray(2)

The grid cell size and offset are used to convert occupancy grid coordinate p to a world coordinate.

property grid

Occupancy grid as a NumPy array (superclass)

Returns

binary occupancy grid

Return type

ndarray(N,M) of bool

If inflate() has been called, this will return the inflated occupancy grid.

line_w(p1, p2)

Get index of cells along a line segment (superclass)

Parameters
  • p1 (array_like(2)) – start

  • p2 (array_like(2)) – end

Returns

index into grid

Return type

ndarray(N)

Get the indices of cells along a line segment defined by the end points given in world coordinates.

The returned indices can be applied to a raveled view of the grid.

Seealso

ravel() w2g()

property maxdim

Maximum dimension of grid in world coordinates (superclass)

Returns

maximum side length of the occupancy grid

Return type

float

property name

Occupancy grid name (superclass)

Returns

name of the occupancy grid

Return type

str

plot(map=None, ax=None, block=False, **kwargs)

Plot the occupancy grid (superclass)

Parameters
  • map (ndarray(N,M), optional) – array which is plotted instead of the grid, must be same size as the occupancy grid,defaults to None

  • ax (Axes2D, optional) – matplotlib axes to plot into, defaults to None

  • block (bool, optional) – block until plot is dismissed, defaults to False

  • kwargs – arguments passed to imshow

The grid is plotted as an image but with axes in world coordinates.

The grid is a NumPy boolean array which has values 0 (false=unoccupied) and 1 (true=occupied). Passing a cmap option to imshow can be used to control the displayed color of free space and obstacles.

property ravel

Ravel the grid (superclass)

Returns

1D view of the occupancy grid

Return type

ndarray(N)

set(region, value)

Set region of map (superclass)

Parameters
  • region (array_like(4)) – The region [xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax]

  • value (int, bool, float) – value to set cells to

property shape

Shape of the occupancy grid array (superclass)

Returns

shape of the occupancy grid array

Return type

2-tuple

This is the shape of the NumPy array that holds the occupancy grid.

w2g(p)

Convert world coordinate to grid coordinate (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – world coordinate (x, y)

Returns

grid coordinate (column, row)

Return type

ndarray(2)

The grid cell size and offset are used to convert p to an occupancy grid coordinate. The grid coordinate is rounded and cast to integer value. No check is made on the validity of the coordinate.

property workspace

Bounds of the occupancy grid in world coordinates (superclass)

Returns

workspace bounds [xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax]

Return type

ndarray(4)

Returns the bounds of the occupancy grid in world coordinates.

property xmax

Maximum x-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

maximum world x-coordinate

Return type

float

property xmin

Minimum x-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

minimum world x-coordinate

Return type

float

property ymax

Maximum y-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

maximum world y-coordinate

Return type

float

property ymin

Minimum y-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

minimum world y-coordinate

Return type

float

Polygon map

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.PolygonMap(workspace=None, polygons=[])[source]

Bases: BaseMap

__init__(workspace=None, polygons=[])[source]

Polygonal obstacle map

Parameters
  • workspace (float, array_like(2), array_like(4)) – dimensions of 2D plot area, defaults to (-10:10) x (-10:10), see plotvol2()

  • polygons (list, optional) – _description_, defaults to []

The workspace can be specified in several ways:

workspace

x-range

y-range

A (scalar)

-A:A

-A:A

[A, B]

A:B

A:B

[A, B, C, D]

A:B

C:D

Workspace is used only to set plot bounds.

add(polygon)[source]

Add a polygon to map

Parameters

polygon (Polygon2 or ndarray(2,N)) – a polygon

iscollision(polygon)[source]

Test for collision

Parameters

polygon (Polygon2 or ndarray(2,N)) – a polygon

Returns

collision

Return type

bool

The polygon is tested against polygons in the map, and returns True on the first collision.

Seealso

add() Polygon2

plot(block=False)[source]
isoccupied(p)[source]

Test if point lies inside an obstacle

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – a 2D point

Returns

enclosure

Return type

bool

The point is tested for enclosure by polygons in the map, and returns True on the first enclosure.

property workspace

Bounds of the occupancy grid

Returns

workspace bounds [xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax]

Return type

ndarray(4)

Returns the bounds of the occupancy grid.

Supporting classes

Planner superclass

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.PlannerBase(occgrid=None, inflate=0, ndims=None, start=None, goal=None, verbose=False, msgcolor='yellow', progress=True, marker=None, seed=None, **unused)[source]

Bases: ABC

Mobile robot motion planner (superclass)

Parameters
  • occgrid (OccGrid instance of ndarray(N,M), optional) – occupancy grid, defaults to None

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to None

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to None

  • inflate (float, optional) – obstacle inflation, defaults to 0

  • ndims – dimensionality of the planning, either 2 for \(\mathbb{R}^2\) or 3 for \(\SE{2}\)

  • ndims – int, optional

  • verbose (bool, optional) – verbosity, defaults to False

  • msgcolor (str, defaults to yellow) – color for message channel printing

  • seed (int, optional) – seed provided to private random number generator, defaults to None

Superclass for all mobile robot motion planners. Key functionality includes:

  • encapsulates an occupancy grid and optionally inflates it

  • validates start and goal if given

  • encapsulates a private random number generator with specifiable seed

  • encapsulates state such as start, goal, and the plan

  • provides a message channel for diagnostic output

The start and goal can be specifed in various ways:

  • at constructor time by the arguments start or goal

  • by assigning the attributes start or goal

  • at planning time by specifying goal to plan()

  • at query time by specifying start to query()

Seealso

OccGrid

property start

Set/get start point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return start point or configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set start point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The start is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property goal

Set/get goal point or configuration (superclass)

Getter

Return goal pointor configuration

Return type

ndarray(2) or ndarray(3)

Setter

Set goal point or configuration

Param

array_like(2) or array_like(3)

The goal is either a point \((x, y)\) or a configuration \((x, y, \theta)\).

Seealso

goal()

property verbose

Get verbosity

Returns

verbosity

Return type

bool

If verbosity print more diagnostic messages to the planner’s message channel.

property random

Get private random number generator

Returns

NumPy random number generator

Return type

numpy.random.Generator

Has methods including:

The generator is initialized with the seed provided at constructor time.

Seealso

numpy.random.default_rng()

random_init(seed=None)[source]

Initialize private random number generator

Parameters

seed (int) – random number seed, defaults to value given to constructor

The private random number generator is initialized. The seed is seed or the value given to the constructor. If None, the generator will be randomly seeded using a seed from the operating system.

plan()[source]

Plan path (superclass)

Parameters
  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value passed to constructor

The implementation depends on the particular planner. Some may have no planning phase. The plan may also depend on just the start or goal.

property occgrid

Occupancy grid

Returns

occupancy grid used for planning

Return type

OccGrid or subclass or None

Returns the occupancy grid that was optionally inflated at constructor time.

Seealso

validate_endpoint() isoccupied()

isoccupied(p)[source]

Test if point is occupied (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – world coordinate (x, y)

Returns

occupancy status of corresponding grid cell

Return type

bool

The world coordinate is transformed and the status of the occupancy grid cell is returned. If the point lies outside the bounds of the occupancy grid return True (obstacle)

If there is no occupancy grid this function always returns False (free).

Seealso

occgrid() validate_endpoint() BinaryOccGrid.isoccupied()

validate_endpoint(p, dtype=None)[source]

Validate start or goal point

Parameters
  • p (array_like(2)) – the point

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

Raises

ValueError – point is inside obstacle

Returns

point as a NumPy array of specified dtype

Return type

ndarray(2)

The coordinate is tested to be a free cell in the occupancy grid.

Seealso

isoccupied() occgrid()

progress_start(n)[source]

Initialize a progress bar (superclass)

Parameters

n (int) – Number of iterations in the operation

Create a progress bar for an operation that has n steps, for example:

planner.progress_start(100)
for i in range(100):
    # ...
    planner.progress_next()
planner.progress_end()
Seealso

progress_next() progress_end()

progress_next()[source]

Increment a progress bar (superclass)

Create a progress bar for an operation that has n steps, for example:

planner.progress_start(100)
for i in range(100):
    # ...
    planner.progress_next()
planner.progress_end()
Seealso

progress_start() progress_end()

progress_end()[source]

Finalize a progress bar (superclass)

Remove/cleanip a progress bar, for example:

planner.progress_start(100)
for i in range(100):
    # ...
    planner.progress_next()
planner.progress_end()
Seealso

progress_start() progress_next()

query(start=None, goal=None, dtype=None, next=True, animate=False, movie=None)[source]

Find a path from start to goal using planner (superclass)

Parameters
  • start (array_like(), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value specified to constructor

  • goal (array_like(), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value specified to constructor

  • dtype (str, optional) – data type for point coordinates, defaults to None

  • next (bool, optional) – invoke next() method of class, defaults to True

  • animate (bool, optional) – show the vehicle path, defaults to False

Returns

path from start to goal, one point \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\) per row

Return type

ndarray(N,2) or ndarray(N,3)

Find a path from start to goal using a previously computed plan.

This is a generic method that works for any planner (\(\mathbb{R}^2\) or \(\SE{2}\)) that can incrementally determine the next point on the path. The method performs the following steps:

  • Validate start and goal

  • If animate, visualize the environment using plot()

  • Iterate on the class’s next() method until the goal is achieved, and if animate plot points.

Seealso

next() plan()

plot(path=None, line=None, line_r=None, configspace=False, unwrap=True, direction=None, background=True, path_marker=None, path_marker_reverse=None, start_marker=None, goal_marker=None, start_vehicle=None, goal_vehicle=None, start=None, goal=None, ax=None, block=False, bgargs={}, **unused)[source]

Plot vehicle path (superclass)

Parameters
  • path ((N, 2) or ndarray(N, 3)) – path, defaults to None

  • direction (array_like(N), optional) – travel direction associated with each point on path, is either >0 or <0, defaults to None

  • line (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for forward motion, default is striped yellow on black

  • line_r (sequence of dict of arguments for plot) – line style for reverse motion, default is striped red on black

  • configspace (bool, optional) – plot the path in 3D configuration space, input must be 3xN. Start and goal style will be given by qstart_marker and qgoal_marker, defaults to False

  • unwrap (bool, optional) – for configuration space plot unwrap \(\theta\) so there are no discontinuities at \(\pm \pi\), defaults to True

  • background (bool, optional) – plot occupancy grid if present, default True

  • start_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking start point

  • goal_marker (dict, optional) – style for marking goal point

  • start_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at start configuration

  • goal_vehicle (dict) – style for vehicle animation object at goal configuration

  • start (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – start position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • goal (array_like(2) or array_like(3), optional) – goal position \((x, y)\) or configuration \((x, y, \theta)\), defaults to value previously set

  • bgargs (dict, optional) – arguments passed to plot_bg(), defaults to None

  • ax (matplotlib axes) – axes to plot into

  • block (bool, optional) – block after displaying the plot

Plots the start and goal location/pose if they are specified by start or goal or were set by the object constructor or plan or query method.

If the start and goal have length 2, planning in \(\mathbb{R}^2\), then markers are drawn using styles specified by start_marker and end_marker which are dicts using Matplotlib keywords, for example:

planner.plot(path, start=dict(marker='s', color='b'))

If the start and goal have length 3, planning in \(\SE{2}\), and configspace is False, then direction-indicating markers are used to display start and goal configuration. These are also given as dicts but have two items: 'shape' which is the shape of the polygonal marker and is either 'triangle' or 'car'. The second item 'args' is passed to base.plot_poly() and Matplotlib and could have values such as filled=True or color.

If configspace is False then a 3D plot is created and the start and goal are indicated by Matplotlib markers specified by the dicts start_marker and end_marker

Default values are provided for all markers:

  • the start point is a circle

  • the goal point is a star

  • the start vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as an unfilled outline

  • the goal vehicle style is a VehiclePolygon(shape='car') as a transparent filled shape

If background is True then the background of the plot is either or both of:

  • the occupancy grid

  • the distance field of the planner

Additional arguments bgargs can be passed through to plot_bg()

If path is specified it has one column per point and either 2 or 3 rows:

  • 2 rows describes motion in the \(xy\)-plane and a 2D plot is created

  • 3 rows describes motion in the \(xy\theta\)-configuration space. By default only the \(xy\)-plane is plotted unless configspace is True in which case motion in \(xy\theta\)-configuration space is shown as a 3D plot.

If the planner supports bi-directional motion then the direction option gives the direction for each point on the path.

Forward motion segments are drawn using style information from line while reverse motion segments are drawn using style information from line_r. These are each a sequence of dicts of Matplotlib plot options which can draw an arbitrary number of lines on top of each other. The default:

line = (
        {color:'black', linewidth:4},
        {color:'yellow', linewidth:3, dashes:(5,5)}
    )

will draw a blackline of width 4 with a dashed yellow line of width 3 plotted on top, giving a line of alternating black and yellow dashes.

Seealso

plot_bg() base.plot_poly()

plot_bg(distance=None, cmap='gray', ax=None, inflated=True, colorbar=True, **unused)[source]

Plot background (superclass)

Parameters
  • distance (ndarray(N,M), optional) – override distance field, defaults to None

  • cmap (str or Colormap, optional) – Specify a colormap for the distance field, defaults to ‘gray’

Displays the background which is either the occupancy grid or a distance field. The distance field encodes the distance of a point from the goal, small distance is dark, a large distance is bright.

If the planner has an occupancy grid then that will be displayed with:
  • free cells in white

  • occupied cells in red

  • inflated occupied cells in pink

If distance is provided, or the planner has a distancemap attribute the the distance field will be used as the background and obstacle cells (actual or inflated) will be shown in red. A colorbar is added.

message(s, color=None)[source]

Print message to message channel

Parameters
  • s (str) – message to print

  • color (str, optional) – color to print it, defaults to color specified at constructor time.

Occupancy grid base classes

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.OccGrid.BaseMap(workspace=None, name=None, **unused)[source]

Bases: ABC

class roboticstoolbox.mobile.OccGrid.BaseOccupancyGrid(grid=None, origin=(0, 0), value=0, cellsize=1, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: BaseMap

copy()[source]

Copy an occupancy grid (superclass)

Returns

copy of the ocupancy grid

Return type

OccGrid

property grid

Occupancy grid as a NumPy array (superclass)

Returns

binary occupancy grid

Return type

ndarray(N,M) of bool

If inflate() has been called, this will return the inflated occupancy grid.

property xmin

Minimum x-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

minimum world x-coordinate

Return type

float

property xmax

Maximum x-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

maximum world x-coordinate

Return type

float

property ymin

Minimum y-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

minimum world y-coordinate

Return type

float

property ymax

Maximum y-coordinate of this grid (superclass)

Returns

maximum world y-coordinate

Return type

float

property shape

Shape of the occupancy grid array (superclass)

Returns

shape of the occupancy grid array

Return type

2-tuple

This is the shape of the NumPy array that holds the occupancy grid.

property maxdim

Maximum dimension of grid in world coordinates (superclass)

Returns

maximum side length of the occupancy grid

Return type

float

property workspace

Bounds of the occupancy grid in world coordinates (superclass)

Returns

workspace bounds [xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax]

Return type

ndarray(4)

Returns the bounds of the occupancy grid in world coordinates.

property name

Occupancy grid name (superclass)

Returns

name of the occupancy grid

Return type

str

set(region, value)[source]

Set region of map (superclass)

Parameters
  • region (array_like(4)) – The region [xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax]

  • value (int, bool, float) – value to set cells to

g2w(p)[source]

Convert grid coordinate to world coordinate (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – grid coordinate (column, row)

Returns

world coordinate (x, y)

Return type

ndarray(2)

The grid cell size and offset are used to convert occupancy grid coordinate p to a world coordinate.

w2g(p)[source]

Convert world coordinate to grid coordinate (superclass)

Parameters

p (array_like(2)) – world coordinate (x, y)

Returns

grid coordinate (column, row)

Return type

ndarray(2)

The grid cell size and offset are used to convert p to an occupancy grid coordinate. The grid coordinate is rounded and cast to integer value. No check is made on the validity of the coordinate.

plot(map=None, ax=None, block=False, **kwargs)[source]

Plot the occupancy grid (superclass)

Parameters
  • map (ndarray(N,M), optional) – array which is plotted instead of the grid, must be same size as the occupancy grid,defaults to None

  • ax (Axes2D, optional) – matplotlib axes to plot into, defaults to None

  • block (bool, optional) – block until plot is dismissed, defaults to False

  • kwargs – arguments passed to imshow

The grid is plotted as an image but with axes in world coordinates.

The grid is a NumPy boolean array which has values 0 (false=unoccupied) and 1 (true=occupied). Passing a cmap option to imshow can be used to control the displayed color of free space and obstacles.

line_w(p1, p2)[source]

Get index of cells along a line segment (superclass)

Parameters
  • p1 (array_like(2)) – start

  • p2 (array_like(2)) – end

Returns

index into grid

Return type

ndarray(N)

Get the indices of cells along a line segment defined by the end points given in world coordinates.

The returned indices can be applied to a raveled view of the grid.

Seealso

ravel() w2g()

property ravel

Ravel the grid (superclass)

Returns

1D view of the occupancy grid

Return type

ndarray(N)